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Pure New York Maple Syrup

Many Maples Farm LK

Pure New York Maple Syrup, how it’s done today. My nephew’s father-in-law Pete Walrod and his son Sam have a sugar bush at their farm, Georgetown NY. They tap about 8000 maples and run the sap by pipe lines to their sugaring house for processing into syrup. In a good year the sap will have about a 2 percent sugar content. It takes a barrel of sap to make a gallon of syrup. It’s done by reverse osmosis and boiling. Thousands of gallons of sap will be processed starting in December and lasting through March or April. 1/2 a gallon came home with us. A delicious treat for our pancakes.

Larry Kingsley, OLLI Member, published author and member of OLLI Writer’s Group

 

StaffEquipment 2Equipment 1Bottles on table

 

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Traveling in England with a 17th Century Guide

petrifying well 2 (2)

My husband and I made a tour of northern England with Celia Fiennes as our guide. Celia made her journey in 1697 which is recorded in “Through England on a Sidesaddle in the Times of William and Mary.”

Through England Book

The genesis of our trip was a manuscript on  http://visionofbritain.org.uk/travellers/Fiennes. Celia Fiennes’ account of her journeys were in 17th century spelling and grammar. I was so intrigued that I “translated” her tour into contemporary English. Then even more intrigued, I searched online for photos of places to which she had been.  The upshot is I created a hard-bound, illustrated and easy- to-read version of her trips. So, what next? Let’s go!

Celia’s reasons for her journeys resonate well today as she says in her introduction, “both ladies, much more gentlemen” should “spend some of their time in journeys to visit their native land and be curious to inform themselves…of the pleasant prospects, good buildings, different produces and manufacturers of each place…”  Other of her trips were to Cornwall and various places in southeast England, including Bath.

The part of her 1696 and 1697 journeys which my husband and I traced took us to the Peak District, the Lake District, Nottingham, York, and Newcastle and more. It was most satisfying to see places that are still there and have her commentary on what we were seeing.

For example, outside of York is Knaresborough which boasts being one of the first roadside attractions, the Petrifying Well. Due to the mineral content of the water, an object can take on a stony exterior.

Peak Cavern (1)

In the Peak District we visited the Peak Cavern, famed for (if nothing else) being the largest cave opening in Britain and into the 1950s, home to rope makers, and, by legend, bandits. It, too, was a tourist attraction in the 17th century. Daniel Defoe makes mention of it in his book of travels.

At Chatsworth, we admired the park and gardens which Celia enjoyed and were as much delighted as she was, by a metal tree that looks like a willow tree and is a fountain.

Celia was a spa enthusiast, so we had to go to Harrogate and sip the rotten-egg smelling water.

York was a delight as she “took” us through York Minister, with its windows “so large and so lofty.”  We went to Burton Agnes Hall and entered under the very gate house which she had.

YM Windows

For North Carolina local interest, we followed her to Durham, seeing the cathedral and cloister which she describes as “good,” certainly good enough for filming a scene in a Harry Potter movie.

It was especially gratifying to talk to guides at various places who knew of Celia’s trip and were delighted with our enthusiasm. Our trip was accomplished by trains, taxis and local buses which certainly added to the adventure.

I am awaiting delivery of a book, “Horseback Journeys of Celia Fiennes – 1000 miles across England” by Elizabeth Barrett. I was thrilled to find a fellow traveler doing her 20th century pilgrimage.

Celia Fiennes

As an aside, actor Ralph Fiennes is a family descendant.  Broughton, the family seat, remains in the family and is open to the public.

Pam Martin (OLLI Member)

 

Musings from an Amateur Cosmologist

December 21, 2017.  Depending upon where you live, this was the shortest of days or it was the longest of days.  The Northern Hemisphere’s winter solstice and the Southern Hemisphere’s summer solstice occurred on this day, as they do every December.  In June of each year the situation is reversed with the start of summer in the North and winter in the South.   The halfway points between these two solstice events are the March and September “equinoxes” when, for a day or so, both hemispheres receive the same amount of sunlight (hence the word “equinox” or equal  night).

How can this be?  Well, the story begins a long time ago when there were no solstices and every day of the year was an equinox.  About 5 billion years ago, when our solar system first formed from a rotating cloud of gas and dust, the young Earth’s axis of rotation was perpendicular to its orbital plane.  This assured that the sun was always directly above Earth’s equator as the planet rotated on its axis.  Every spot on Earth experienced 12 hours of sunlight and 12 hours of darkness every day of the year.

Then, about 4 to 4.5 billion years ago, there is scientific consensus that an event occurred that changed all that when a Mars-sized proto-planet collided with Earth.  This monumental event not only created our moon (another story), but the impact forced Earth’s axis to tilt away from the vertical by about 23.5 degrees.  Suddenly, the rotating Earth began to experience “seasons” as the amount of sunlight reaching each spot on the planet’s surface now varied from day to day and month to month.  Picture the North Pole now tilting away from the sun during the Northern Hemisphere’s winter solstice and towards the sun 6 months later during the summer solstice.  Of course, the reverse is true for the Southern Hemisphere.

Since Earth’s axis tilt never changes its orientation as the planet orbits the sun, this also means that there are two days each year (the March and September equinoxes) when the poles are equidistant from the sun.  The axis is still tilted 23.5 degrees but neither pole tilts toward or away from the sun (see the diagram below).

chart for Howard's blog

Another result of Earth’s axis tilt is the need to recognize two new global latitude lines – the “tropics”.  The Tropic of Capricorn circles the globe at about 23.5 degrees South of the equator and marks the lowest point (as viewed from the Northern Hemisphere) of the sun’s apparent path across the winter sky.  This is where the sun stops its southward progression and starts to move northward again on the day we call the Northern Hemisphere’s winter solstice.

“Solstice” is a Middle English word derived from the Latin “sol” (sun) and “stit” (stopped).

At approximately 23.5 degrees North latitude, the Tropic of Cancer fulfills this role for the Northern Hemisphere’s summer solstice when the sun stops its northward movement and heads southward again.  Again, the opposite holds true in both cases for the Southern Hemisphere.

Complicated, yes, but what would our home planet be like without seasons?

Incidentally, and counter-intuitively, because of Earth’s elliptical orbit around the sun, we are actually two or three million miles closer to the sun in January than we are in July.  However, being a bit closer to the sun during winter in the Northern Hemisphere is more than offset by the effect of the tilt in Earth’s axis as described above.

Note:  My use of the word “sunlight” throughout these musings implies the entire electromagnetic spectrum of the sun’s radiation that reaches Earth and not just the light we can see.

Howard Horton, OLLI at NC State member

 

Book Review: Angle of Repose by Wallace Stegner (1909-1993)

Angle of Repose

Fifty-eight year old Lyman Ward, the narrator of the story, is a retired historian, wheel chair bound with a painful bone disease. Estranged from his wife and bitter about his life, he makes a decision to return to his family home in Grass Valley, California, and write a biography about his grandmother, Susan Ward, who made her own trip west in the 1800s.

Lyman first introduces his grandfather, Oliver Ward, as an honest man searching for a place to focus on his life’s work. A mining engineer, he believed the West held unexplored opportunities, and he moves his family to different areas there in search of a good life as he tries to succeed in a rough environment.

Susan Ward left a promising future in New York to follow her husband, fully expecting to someday return to the East and resume her art career. In the course of her journey, she and her family confront challenges and endure many hardships, as she becomes more and more disappointed with her life. The couple stays together for sixty years, although not always joyfully. Writing and re-living his grandparents’ lives helps Lyman face his own health and marital problems.

Angle of Repose is an exceptional novel that exposes through a well plotted story the early myth of America’s West as a land of opportunity and glamorous cowboys. This 1972 Pulitzer Prize winner for fiction is based on historical letters of Mary Hallock Foote, a little known 19th century writer. By using the facts found in these letters, Stegner sets his novel in the 19th century while also having his characters spend time in the 1970s. He creates convincing, complex characters who are a meld of America’s past and present.
The title of the book comes from a geological term for the diminished incline that will halt a movement; the steepest angle at which a sloping surface formed of loose material is stabilized. The author’s characters try valiantly to find their own angle of repose. Not all succeed.

William Stegner said of his epic novel, “It’s perfectly clear that if every writer is born to write one story, this is my story.” Through his rich prose, in Angle of Repose he shares his love of the land and impresses on the reader his extraordinary insight into human nature.

 
Reviewed by Mercedes Horton (OLLI Member)

 

Musings from an Amateur Cosmologist

Moon and Sun relationship

Recently, for a minute or two, a few fortunate Americans found themselves to be in the sixty five to seventy mile wide shadow of the moon during the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse.

However, most of us do not stop to consider that, essentially, we experience a more frequent and much longer solar “eclipse” by being caught in Earth’s shadow as the planet continuously eclipses the sun. This occurs for several hours each day between sunset and sunrise when half of the planet is always in the earth’s shadow (we call this nighttime). The only exception, other than the cosmonauts aboard the Space Station, are the folks who live in the “land of the midnight sun” at that time of the year when, for them, the sun never sets.

By the way, since it is the Earth’s rotation that gives us the illusion of the rising and setting sun, we should really call these events “Earthset” and “Earthrise” respectively, as in “What a beautiful Earthrise this evening”.telescope-e1504807705987.jpg

When it comes to eclipses, one particular historical event stands out. During a total solar eclipse over the South Atlantic Ocean in May, 1919, the British astronomer, Sir Arthur Eddington, was able to confirm one of Albert Einstein’s most famous predictions.

In 1916, Einstein had predicted, as part of his new General Theory of Relativity, that light on its way to us from distant stars would follow a curved path around a massive body, like the sun, because of the “warping” of space-time in the vicinity of that body (sort of like a marble rolling across a trampoline with a bowling ball nestled in it’s center).

By photographing the position of the Hyades star cluster when the sun was nowhere near the cluster’s line of sight to Earth and again, during the eclipse, when the darkened sun was almost directly in the cluster’s line of sight, Eddington found that not only did the stars appear to shift their positions relative to background stars, but by the exact amount predicted by Einstein. This was in conflict with Newton’s theory of gravity which predicted a much smaller, if any, path-bending effect for light. Star light has no mass and, according to Newton, should not be affected by a gravitational field, but Einstein/Edington found that it indeed is.

We now know that gravity is not some mysterious “force acting at a distance” as Newton believed, but is actually the mass-induced curvature of space-time that causes moving objects to “fall” toward each other along curved paths. This means, for example, that our “small” Earth is continuously falling toward the much larger sun, but the planet’s rate of fall is (fortunately, for us) balanced by its orbital speed and momentum in its curved path around the sun.

Interesting, but this is probably not the same thing as saying, “I think I am falling for you”.

Howard Horton – OLLI Member and Book Group Coordinator

 

Telescope photo source – shutterstock wikicommons

Moonphase photo Source – Abraren.wikispace

Fall Semester Kick-Off to Feature Award-Winning Journalist

Cullen Browder Pic

Cullen Browder, one of the nation’s top investigative journalists, will be the speaker at OLLI’s Fall Semester Kick-Off and Open House at 2 p.m. Wednesday, Sept. 6. His timely subject: “The Importance of Investigative Reporting to Our Democracy.”

Cullen knows all about investigative reporting. That’s his beat at WRAL-TV News, where he is the chief investigative reporter. His work has won him major regional and national awards since he joined the station in 1998. It’s likely that his role has never been more challenging than today, with a President accusing the media of “fake news,” and Americans throughout the country debating major issues and how the media cover them.

The Tennessee native has received multiple Emmy awards from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. He’s also been honored by the Associated Press and the Radio Television Digital News Association. The Washington Post has recognized him as one of the best state capitol reporters in America, helping to bring about significant changes in North Carolina state government. He’s also explored issues from citizens battling Alzheimer’s to the challenge of homelessness. Continue reading Fall Semester Kick-Off to Feature Award-Winning Journalist